Guidelines for Detection, Monitoring and Prevention of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) in the Pulp and Paper Mill

Format: PDF
Language: English
Product Type: Digital
Provider: TAPPI
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Price: $53.00
Product Details

This Technical Information Paper provides guidelines for the detection, monitoring and prevention of flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pulp and paper mill. FAC is a damage phenomenon that causes wall thinning of carbon steel piping, fittings, vessels and other equipment in systems that carry wet steam, high-quality boiler feed water or condensate. FAC can occur under single- or two-phase flow conditions (water/steam or water/air).

This TIP is a compendium of information about FAC. It is largely based on a paper by Petric and Ksiazek, 1997 (1). With author permission, the working group has reviewed, edited and supplemented it with additional information.

The power industry has found that the control of FAC requires a long-term corporate commitment and strategy, comprehensive implementation procedures, sound analysis and inspection programs. This document addresses only the basic characteristics of FAC in the pulp and paper mill; the organizational focus on an FAC strategy is left to the individual company structure. The TIP recommends company system review and on-going monitoring of FAC-prone components.

FAC wall thinning has resulted in catastrophic failures of high-energy piping systems for transport of water and steam/water mixtures. Based on research sponsored by the electric utility industry (2), the risk of FAC ruptures have been highlighted and the key parameters influencing FAC have been well identified. As a result, many of the nation’s power plants have implemented organizational and technical procedures (sometimes assisted by computer- based modeling tools) to detect, monitor and hopefully prevent metal loss due to FAC. This approach uses FAC detection guidelines to inspect susceptible piping/process components for metal loss during scheduled outages. The results are then re-evaluated at regular inspection intervals to monitor the rate, if any, of FAC attack.

The piping and component systems of the pulp and paper mill are similar to those found in industrial power and steam plants. They include many of the same systems – boiler feed water, condensate and extraction steam – which have been found to be susceptible to FAC in large power plants. Also, the pulp and paper mill has additional susceptible systems that are not found in electric utility plants. For instance, there are multiple boiler feed water and condensate piping runs that are not isolated in the plant. Failure of these runs due to FAC related ruptures or leak- induced hot vapor/steam flashing hazards can lead to personnel exposure.

This TIP describes the FAC mechanism, process conditions required for FAC to be active, and guidelines to assess FAC in the plant as part of a systematic procedure. The procedure includes detection (covering system evaluation, susceptible piping systems and process components, inspection and testing), evaluation of FAC thinning damage, FAC monitoring and preventative practices that also address repair/replacement options.

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